欢迎来到Reed Smith的《全球就业法月刊》博客文章。本月的帖子涵盖了五个主要司法管辖区(法国,德国,香港,英国和美国)员工罢工的合法性。

法国

According to the French Supreme Court, a 合法的 strike action is defined as a collective cessation of work, the purpose of which is to support professional claims. In the private sector, the right to strike, as a constitutional right, cannot be restricted or regulated by a collective agreement or by the employer itself. There is thus no obligation to comply with a specific notice period prior to going 上 strike. Employees, however, must inform the employer of their claims at the time they decide to stop working 和 go 上 strike.

就业机会contracts are suspended during the strike (i.e., the employees do not perform their duties 和 the employer does not pay them). Employees 上 strike are protected against any disciplinary sanctions, including dismissals in the sense that any sanctions that may be imposed where there is 合法的 strike action are deemed to be null 和 void. This protection does not apply when the strike is unlawful (i.e., the action does not support professional claims or where the employees 上 strike prevent non-strikers from working).

通常,大多数罢工诉讼都可以得到解决,而不必在法庭上提起法律诉讼。

德国

In 德国, a strike is the typical 工业行动 上 the part of the employees 和 trade unions. To be legal, a strike must meet certain formal requirements 和 pursue a legitimate purpose. Formally, a strike must be (i) organised by a trade union; 和 (ii) called following a strike vote conducted according to democratic principles. Therefore, a so-called “wildcat” strike, which is not organised by a trade union, is illegal. Any strike must pursue a legal purpose, which can 上ly be to change working conditions. Furthermore, a strike must be conducted in a reasonable 和 合法的 manner. Therefore, the union may not occupy the premises, call 上 customers of the employer to boycott the product, or prevent employees willing to work from entering the premises 和 working.

德国政府目前正在提议一项关于罢工权的新法律。目的是防止这样的情况,即只占劳动力一小部分的小工会声称要为整个劳动力谈判集体谈判协议并进行罢工。过去,小而强大的联盟“GVL”代表(几乎是唯一的)德国铁路(Deutsche Bahn)火车司机的罢工。由于其成员结构,这些罢工严重影响了德国的整个铁路运输。 GVL工会还声称对德国铁路的其他雇员(例如指挥)负责。除火车司机外,Deutsche Bahn的大多数员工都是不同工会的成员。 GVL的索赔将导致德国铁路的同类型雇员根据其特定工会会员身份而具有不同的雇用条件。德意志铁路公司正在努力防止这种不令人满意的情况。但是,由于小型GVL工会与火车司机可以组织破坏性罢工,因此其谈判立场非常有限。目前,新法律仍在讨论中。

香港

在香港,结社自由受到《基本法》和《香港人权法案条例》(第383章)的保障(“博罗“)。此外,《工会条例》(第332章)规定了工会会员的权利和义务,而《雇佣条例》(第57章)(“环氧乙烷“)通常可以防止反工会歧视。 《劳资关系条例》(第55章)规管贸易纠纷的解决。 《公共秩序条例》(第245章)(“便便“)如果罢工采取了公共游行的形式,则是相关的。

合法性

《基本法》第二十七条保障结社自由和罢工自由。“香港居民享有言论,新闻和出版自由;结社,集会,游行和示威的自由;以及建立和参加工会以及罢工的权利和自由。” 他们根深蒂固的《基本法》表明它们是基本权利。

《人权法案》是《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》的国内颁布。第17和18(1)条承认和平集会的权利以及与他人结社的自由权,其中包括为了保护自己的利益而组建和参加工会的权利。

治安条例

《公安条例》与公众集会的规管有关。在罢工采取公开游行,公开集会,非法集会或暴动的形式下,必须遵守《公安条例》。前述的结社自由和罢工自由设想只有为特定目的的和平,有意,临时的团体聚会才能得到保护。不和平的集会或因暴力而停止和平的集会不在保护范围之内。

根据《公安条例》,视参加人数而定,举行公众集会或公众游行可能需要提前七天通知警察局长。警务处处长具有法定酌处权,以禁止,反对或向公众集会/公众游行施加条件。

就业机会Ordinance

根据《雇佣条例》,禁止雇主阻止或阻止雇员行使其参加工会活动或参加工会活动的权利。雇主不得解雇,惩罚或歧视行使其权利的雇员。 《雇佣条例》还禁止雇主以雇员参加罢工为由立即解雇雇员。如果员工参加了不合法的罢工,EO会确保在他/她因参加罢工而缺勤的期间保持工作的连续性。

英国

罢工没有法定定义,但为向雇主施加压力而采取的任何一致行动通常可以归为:“industrial action”。工业行动可能包括工人罢工或采取其他行动,例如拒绝加班-这种行动被称为“罢工行动”。有时雇主可能“lock out” its employees 和 stop them from working or coming back to work during a dispute. There is no right to strike as such, 和 calling a strike in the UK is in principle unlawful as it amounts to inducing employees to breach their contracts of employment. For this reason, striking or taking 工业行动 has often been described as a privilege rather than a right. However, provided that certain conditions are met, certain legal immunities are available to unions calling for 工业行动, 和 employees individually enjoy certain protections in the case of such “lawful” 工业行动.

法律程序

At the moment, in order to proceed with a strike 合法的ly, a union must first give a notification of ballot 和 provide a copy of the voting papers to the employer no later than a week 和 three days before the ballot takes place. Every member of the union is entitled to vote 和 has the right to do so secretly where the conditions are met. Employees have some protection against disciplinary action by their employer as a result of both deciding to vote for a strike 和 participating in a strike or other 工业行动.

新立法

The new Conservative majority government put forward reforms that will see 工业行动 become much harder to execute legally. According to Business Secretary Sajid Javid, these changes will be a priority of the government. The first key change proposed is a new 50% turnout threshold for ballots (no turnout threshold is currently in place). Second, in core public services such as education, health, fire 和 transport services, 40% of those eligible to vote must support the 工业行动 (at the moment ballots 上ly need a simple majority). Other proposed reforms include lifting restrictions to use temporary (“agency”)工人来扮演罢工工人的角色。

这些拟议的改革是有争议的。工会代表大会不可避免地对拟议的变更做出了极为消极的回应,认为在新的改革下罢工行动几乎变得不可能。一些工会表示,如果议会通过新立法,他们将进行非法罢工。

罢工问题对伦敦的通勤者来说是一个热门话题,在伦敦,由于四个主要的地下铁路工会组织罢工,最近导致整个首都的交通运输中断。无论政治派别如何,许多伦敦人都感到沮丧,这些拟议的改革实际上可能会受到一些人的欢迎。

美国

在美国,《国家劳动关系法》(“NLRA”) guarantees the rights of private sector employees to strike, but also places qualifications 上 the exercise of that right. Determining whether a strike is 合法的 or unlawful under the NLRA is critical in determining the rights of employees to reinstatement after the strike. The 合法的ness of a strike depends 上 the purpose of the strike, its timing, 和 the conduct of the strikers.

合法罢工分为两类:经济罢工和不公平的劳工惯例罢工。雇员进行经济罢工是为了从雇主那里获得经济让步,例如更高的工资。雇主可以替代从事经济罢工的雇员,并且在罢工工人无条件申请重返工作岗位后无需恢复罢工。但是,如果罢工者在罢工后没有获得正规且基本同等的工作,则他们有权在空缺发生时被罢免。为抗议雇主的非法行为而罢工的雇员,例如惩戒参加工会活动的雇员,有更大的恢复职权。即使必须解雇替换雇员,他们也有权立即恢复工作。出于非法目的而停工的雇员不受NLRA的保护,因此,由于罢工活动而可能被解雇或受到纪律处分。例如,如果罢工违反了工会与雇主之间的集体谈判协议中的不罢工条款,则是非法的。同样,如果罢工者在罢工期间进行了严重的不当行为,例如攻击管理代表,则他们将不受NLRA的保护,也无权恢复原职。